Your global citizen…COUGH! COUGH!

From public to private to international and lastly Yale university. How did I make it? I have no fucking idea. Others say it’s smarts, but we all know one or two smarter dropouts out there. In fact, who gets to define the standards of smartness? What if one had a bad day while taking them SATs or ACTs for that matter? What if one is just not that good at taking tests? I guess we shall never know. And what about the intelligence quotient scores? What was the inventor Lewis Terman and Alfred Binet IQs anyways? Well, at least with the IQ scores, studies show that it measures developed skills, not native intelligence. Don’t say anything about a person’s intellectual limits, and can change dramatically over one’s lifetime. ( see here )

I consider myself very lucky to have reached where I am. Let’s go with fortunate though, after all, we don’t wanna scare off them anointed elite liberals who are paying for my fees now. We don’t want them to think that they have got a wrong representative for their institution (which they did, between me and you). You gotta admit though, we all need luck in life. Well, unless you Nicki Minaj – she ain’t lucky, that goddess is blessed.

From public to private to international.

Around March 2014, at the Kilimanjaro international airport. Pissed AF. I had missed my flight. Just a minute late, the plane wouldn’t have gone for another half an hour, and this Chagga security guy wouldn’t let me pass. I mean I understand the whole three hours too early, one minute too late narrative as Shakespear phrased it. But we’re in an airport as big as a classroom , in Africa, where’s African time at bruh?! Lemme give him the benefit of the doubt, the poor guy might have lost his NYANYA for Pete’s sake. I mean who knows.

Anyways, I unapologetically dragged my ass to the FAST JETS office. Five minutes later and I was listed in the next flight. Thanks to the low demand back in them days, I didn’t have to pay a single cent…FAST JET! Y’all are the real MVPs.

I now had to wait for more than five hours until the next flight. With little to nothing in my pockets, I could afford to treat myself with a beer and ZEGE. After all, that two days straight interview was no joke; the least I could do was to treat myself. As the famous KINGA biblical line goes ‘thou shalt treat thy tummies with yummy cuisine and beverages’, I savagely immersed myself in that praiseworthy -goldest- of the Usambara fries cemented in the midst of three worth of scrambled eggs, to only which is mouthwatering to WABONGO.

Whilst enjoying myself like no one’s business, my phone rings. THERE’S NO WAY THAT’S MINE. People never call me. Wait, what? God damn it, it’s mine. Arghh! – Dig me a grave, bury me away and don’t invite auntie Joy to the funeral reception – Who is this selfless and undeserving of my time son of a man dares to ring me at this time? Why do y’all gotta be like that? 

‘Hallo! Shikamoo mama?’….’How’s it going?’…..’What?’…. ‘You’re kidding right?’. ‘There’s no way they chose me’…’OMG! Thank you so much’. ‘This is such good news’. ASANTE SANA MAMA! It must have been all those night prayers you had me do. I really appreciate your efforts. Ni nani kama mama?

So, just like that. I was in. Who would have known that I would one day spend two years with the children of our very own ‘top one percentile’.

MOVING ON… Three years after, I present to you my reflection on my time at the International School of Moshi, ISM. Btw, this is gonna be a featured interview in the upcoming ISM’s student-led SUMMIT magazine.


What has been the greatest advantage of studying at ISM?

To me, the greatest advantage of studying at ISM has been the exposure to the whole new world – which for the sake of clarity and lack of a better term I will lamely dub it as ‘internationalism’. I recall having a pretty skewed view of the world before my coming to ISM, partly because my former school’s syllabus was a lot more hesitant at nurturing their students into becoming global citizens. However, in my two years’ period at ISM, I had grown to be a well knowledgeable and multifaceted individual as far as global affairs were concerned.

How do you think ISM prepared you for Uni life?

Needless to say, University life is a lot harder than high school life, but ISM through its curriculum (IB) has done quite a good job at preparing me for the workload. The IB curriculum is without a doubt one of the best high school educational systems in the world, and to most this will only become evident once you reach university where most of the assignments are writing intensive.

Another thing is on the out of the class lifestyle. ISM being a cosmopolitan school that it is had prepared me well for the culture shocks that the very diverse American community brings to foreigners. The exposure I got from my teachers and some of my fellow students from Western countries gave me an idea of what to expect in university and US at large.

How do you think ISM is ideal for building up a global citizen (with you as an example)?

As I mentioned earlier in the first question; by the virtue of having a community as diverse as ISM has, international schools tend to be very effective at building up a global citizen. To me, ISM was an eye opener when it came to the celebration of different cultures and learning how to appreciate my own. With the school’s greater focus put into having a concern for integrity and honesty as well as open-mindedness, ISM students are bound to succeed at any institution where global citizenship mentality is celebrated

What do you remember and (probably cherish) most about your time at ISM?

My time at ISM was very exciting. There is a lot of memorable moments (if not all) that I will always cherish. What made my experience at ISM so special is the fact that every day was an adventure of some sort. One never knew what to expect, whether in class or out of one. From devoted teachers to the kind and loving school support staffs, ISM never felt foreign to me.

I recall having endless debates with my fellow students in the dorms, dining hall and at the DUKA . Playing soccer and basketball pickup games in Karibu Hall. Sometimes just hanging outdoors by the swimming pool. All these memories and experiences were very transformative and broadened my outlook in life.

~cem~ (01/05/2017)

The stoics perspective on bad endings

In the pursuit of happiness, perfection is overtaking our everyday rituals in ways that create more miseries than intended. It seems as if today’s perception of the theory of right action in maximising our happiness and pleasure is merely on the right track. It is as though everyone is too prone to indiscretion. Most of us think of our lives as being more distasteful than the next person around, BUT of course won’t admit it before the masses. I mean who would? Social suicide is a real deal in the new hashtag generation. ONLY IF WE DID THOUGH…life would have been so much easier, don’t you think??

In the pursuit of happiness, one must have heard of the philosophical doctrine known as stoicism. In layman’s terms, the doctrine means the endurance of pain or hardship without a display of feelings and complaint. On the other side, the anointed elite liberals will complicate things as they normally would, claiming that the doctrine implies happiness and judgment are to be based on behaviour, rather than words; that we don’t control and cannot rely on external events, only ourselves and our responses. Only if it was easily attainable…life would have been so much appealing, don’t you think??

In the pursuit of happiness, the stoics will tell you “Never let the future disturb you. You will meet it, if you have to, with the same weapons of reason which today arm you against the present.” – credits to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius’ (161-180AD) quotes. Back to my point, the stoics claim that sometimes even if we know or believe that the future is doomed, or we are bound to fail, or that rationally speaking there’s no point of doing something in which the odds are more than ninety-nine percent against you; one should still pursue it. Because in the words of my late granny, ‘it is in the most unexpected moments that we find the most cherishable moments’. Only if we all we had this kind of mentality…life would have been so much trouble-free, don’t you think??

In the pursuit of happiness, the stoics will tell you that it is okay to take calculated risks. Sometimes they will even disregard the ‘calculated’ part, making it a more risk inclined narrative to the numbers where the majority are risk averse. Seems unreasonable right?… Not too fast my friend. In the baby boomer generation moving forwards, isn’t everyone’s fantasy of the perfect guy or girl compiled with a partner who’s sweet yet unpredictable, loving yet adventurous, humble yet brave, etcetera, etcetera. All these attributes align with a risk taking or even a deliberately risk-seeking individual. We all want to feel safe with our partners, yet desire dangerous traits in them. Only if we were all not brainwashed by romantic novels and Hollywood’s narrative of a perfect guy/girl, and knew what we actually wanted…life would have been so much glamorous, don’t you think??

In the pursuit of happiness, the stoics will tell you bad endings is a myth. As with every comparison based adjunct, no word has a concrete connotation. Everyone’s interpretation of bad endings will vary from somebody else’s, as the term has a relative undertone intertwined with one’s knowledge, experiences and beliefs. Remember just like the stoics will tell you that judgments are to be based on behaviour not words; we must all understand that we don’t have control over external events. What’s the point of whining about what’s out of one’s control anyway? So if we are to focus on ourselves and our responses, then we will have no grievances from the bad endings. And what if we are anticipating a bad ending before committing? One might ask. The stoics will tell you to hell with it, roll up your sleeves, and go with it. After all, there is no absolute certainty in anticipation. Only if we always acted informatively. Only if we put our knowledge into daily use…life would have been so much angelical and wholesome, don’t you think??

~Cem~(01/05/2017)

The undocumented history

African history has for centuries been confusing to scholars due to some missing dots on what seems to be a puzzle now. This has made it hard for historians to come up with a more chronologically sensible and well-documented past. Disregarding the history of Africa during and after colonialism when it was all well documented (thanks to the colonial powers’ historians of the time), modern historians have found it challenging, however, to document the pre-existent ideologies in the form of arts and culture from the pre-colonial era. There is still a lot of cultural and artistic heritages that are yet to be discovered or simply not well researched for the case of the discovered artefacts. This is especially true with the sub-Saharan Africa.

Looking at the Northern Africa; the likes of the ancient Egypt civilisation and the once Arab conquered kingdoms through the stretch of the Saharan desert have attracted a lot of research and study by historians from all over the world on the region; and for that reason, their history is an almost complete puzzle. But that only involves the likes of modern day Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Western Sahara which hardly makes a fifth of the continent. So what about the other four-fifth? And what about all the richness that they possess?

Looking only at the amount of historical information that has been decoded from the heritage of the ancient civilisation of Egypt, it is indicative of the bulkiness of the information that is yet to be discovered from other cultures across the continent. Africa has fifty-four independent countries, and with each country comes hundreds or even thousands of ancient kingdoms, and yet all that we know of her past has been the generalisation of the few uncovered artefacts.  there is still a lot of work to be done with regard to the other part of Africa and its past.

So who is to blame on this? The western??? – As much as I would want to blame them on this one too (the way we do on other problems) solely on the basis of their introduction of the imperialist systems in the name of colonialism, I am afraid this one is ours to take. We cannot afford to be fully dependant on the west to study what’s predominantly ours. It’s time we take on the wheel with regard to our motherland related issues.

 

>On the light of Africa arts, here are two amazing pieces that have really caught my eyes<

 

The mean principle

ARISTOTLE, 382BC-322BC

Aristotle.jpg

Many of us tend to look at things with the perception of extremities as far as anything is concerned. We stretch every ideology that there is with a focus of the far opposites: right and wrong, black and white, good and evil, and the list goes on infinitely. But is this how we ought to approach things? Is this any right by any sort of set standards if there is?

Aristotle answers this with an observatory doctrine that he dubs as ‘The mean principle’. The principle goes like ‘it is not that there are shades of grey between moral black and white – good and bad aren’t opposites at all. Rather, the good is a ‘mean’ that stands between two bads: that of excess and that of deficiency. Courage, for instance, is the mean between the excess of rashness and the deficit of cowardice. Mercy is the mean between the excess of vengefulness and the deficiency of surrender’.

The mean principle is a really signifinicant and brilliant ideology that utterly changes one’s perspective on how to approach things. With this principle in mind, the idea of ‘too much of everything is harmful’ is afterall true.

 

TALENT APPRECIATION

A friend’s well crafted piece which happened to be inspired by me 😉.

I have been blessed to have been surrounded by some talented and inspiring people in my life, one of them being my one an donly girlfriend Michaellah. She is from Zimbabwe. This beautiful, yet smart lady has been nothing but a positive influence in my life. And she’s amongst the people who have insipired my documenting of my life and thoughts or blogging as y’all fancy people love to pin it down as.

I highly recommend that you check her blog https://mmapotaringa.wordpress.com/ for more creative and well crafted short stories like the following.

For the love of Teezee

I hurriedly searched for the price of a plane ticket. South Africa and Tanzania weren’t too far from each other. My Minster of Foreign Affairs had invited me to spend the summer break with him at his parents’ house.This was a lifetime opportunity, way better than the summer fling I had imagined. Of course, I wanted to whine my waist, shake my buttocks and gyrate on a bar table in an exotic place but having a lover invite me home was a better deal. I drummed my fingers on the laptop thinking up a good excuse to tell my mother about why her nineteen-year-old needed to go to the East African country. That night I told my parents how the Chicago initiative to teach African youths how to apply to American Universities had requested my help, as a volunteer had dropped out at the last minute and they needed an African replacement asap.

The next day I was on a two-hour flight to Daar es Salaam.My prince picked me up at the airport and we jetted off to his home.The streets were lined with boys between the ages of 12 and 14 playing soccer in the streets. The girls straddled baskets laden with fruits. The juicy yellow and orange mangoes called out to me, my mouth watered at the thought of how many I would be able to devour during my three-week visit.The women chided the children playing on the streets as they arranged their tomatoes for sale into tiny pyramids with the slightly rotten fruit at the bottom and the succulent red ones at the top.I stared out of the window enchanted by the sights I saw.South Africa was the same but the oxygen here was of a different kind, the euphoria circulated faster than the smoke coughed out by the vehicles in the city.

So John hadn’t told me what his economic status was and I was so excited to have a truly Tanzanian experience.Eat Ugali with my fingers, devour chapatis and pilau, go to the market with his mother elaborately dressed in a kanga dress.You can imagine my shock as the car wheeled into a gigantic yard with a swimming pool and a double story house which was bigger than a soccer field and his mother waved at us while dressed in jeans and a top.I had brought all my long skirts for nothing.I silently chuckled to myself, why had I tried to dress like a woman applying for the post of wife in his family.My long billowing skirt irritated my ankles and made me look like a short round woman without curves.

John’s mother hugged me enthusiastically as she welcomed me into her home.She gushed about how her son hadn’t stopped talking about me.I blushed silently as I prayed that he hadn’t told her about my prowess in bed.It was the reason I was there, or so I thought.John’s siblings were excited to meet me and I immediately struck up a close friendship with his seventeen-year-old sister, Sandra.She was after all my cover story.The seventeen-year-old and I needed to go over a few things to appear like true best friends.John’s father a strict conservative man had only agreed to house a female guest under the pretense that she was his daughter’s best friend.I guess John and I wouldn’t be making love on the dining room table but would have to sneak around.

John’s father arrived home at 8 pm after his business meeting.There was a flurry of movement as the ten-year-old twins dived for the dining room table where their homework lay half open.The Tv was switched off, and I scooted from the sofa where John and I had been sitting with his head in my lap, to a chair closer to Sandra.A tall middle-aged man strode into the room and filled it with his greeting.He was cheerful after having sealed a big deal and told the twins to watch tv since they had been doing homework for a long time.John winked at me as his father asked how I had met Sandra and how my people in South Africa were.The interview was quickly concluded and John’s mother dished out the ugali and beef stew.After dinner, I settled into my room which was two doors down from John’s and I was just about to fall asleep when he jumped into my bed.The sheets became electrified as our love consumed our bodies.The bed shook softly beneath us as we reached for the heavens.The ceiling must have cried from watching us change positions like tv channels.John tied a soft cloth around my mouth to prevent my cries from breaking the stillness of the night.

Even though there was no breakfast in bed, our mornings were spent blissfully in the shower showing the tiles what a man and woman hungry for each other can achieve in a bathroom.I was drifting on my own cloud until the unexpected visitor dropped by.She was his ex-girlfriend and she had come to fight for her man.She was a yellow-bone like me, short like me, with the body of a true woman.Supple breasts and firm buttocks.My only advantage was my natural hair.She pulled her Brazilian wig off and exposed the neat cornrows underneath.Next, she shrugged off her high heel shoes and began to beat on her chest the way Nigerian women do when they are about to provoke a fight.She threatened to remove her clothes if I did not come out of the house to fight her.

FIGHTING AL-SHABAAB

Date: 22nd Feb 2016 

Abstract

This study presents a new take towards the ongoing fight against Al-Shabaab. Special attention is given to the Al-Shabaab militant group as part of the core topics covered in class. The review will analyse the strategies used by radical Islamic terrorist organisations in recruiting members in an attempt to understand why individuals join terrorist groups, and henceforth providing effective solutions to the problem. The study will also examine the history that led to the uprising, reasons behind the militants’ motives and ways through which the whole project can be brought into collapse.

AL SH

As per April 2016, Kenyans contributed more foreign recruits to Al-Shabaab than any other country, the Connecticut Public Television (CPT) reports. This being despite the fact that the militant group was behind the Garissa University college attack in April 2015 killing 147 students and leaving hundreds of other students injured, and also responsible for the Westgate mall attack in 2013 killing at least 67 innocent civilians. In fact, the report claims that most of the Kenyan recruits were actively involved in these particular attacks against their fellow countrymen, posting a disturbingly inherent question as to why one would turn against his people, let it alone join such an organisation in the first place.

Ideally, any rational individual should see these militant and rebel groups for they are – the inevitable hateful sociopaths and religious extremists who are really just an outgrowth of the peaceful and loving religion that is the Islamic faith, and they only represent a small percentile of the whole religion. But of course this is far from the truth, the groups attract more numbers now than ever which means either these individuals abide by this hateful nature on a massive scale or they are compelled by something else that we haven’t critically thought of.

Understanding these kinds of scenarios can be hard. In fact, it is even harder for individuals with progressive and liberal minded views. Progressive individuals tend to have troubles when envisioning what’s really happening in the world versus what they wish would have happened instead. This trouble arises because of as much as we want to have a set global moral and ethics standards, the brutal reality points in another direction. As a matter of fact, the moral standards spectrum or the moral compass is continuously getting unequally distributed now more than ever. Individuals’ justification towards their action seems to be getting more and more airheaded as time progresses. So it shouldn’t come as a surprise as to why Kenyans would join a rebel group in the neighbouring country even after they attacked their families and friends.

This, however, should not stop our efforts in finding solutions towards stopping extremism for good. In fact, it should encourage us to change our approach to tackling the problem head on, and instead, try to understand the root cause first. There have been a lot of research on the reasons to why people would appeal to the rebel groups’ ideologies, but most of them have been based on mere assumptions rather than critical analysis on the basis of empirical evidence.

This study will try to examine the ideological background of the Al-Shabaab militant group and try to understand the strategies used by the group in aligning with as many people as possible and hence maximising their recruits numbers. The study will attempt to do so with as little assumptions as possible so as to not fall in the dead end trap that most researchers have.

In understanding this narrative, consider multiple case studies were democratic nations have elected leaders with lunatic and fascist views – in a free and fair election – and disregarding the assumed consequence. Backed by history, this has happened over and over again; in fact, it is happening the USA with Donald Trump’s election. So what does this say about the people who aligned with these leaders’ ideologies? Did they not pre-determine the consequence? Were they not literate enough? Or are individuals just extremists and unapologetically irrational in nature?

Of course, these scenarios are complex and different from each other, but research has shown some interesting similarities with the rise of extremist groups in the midst of political, economic, social, cultural and military/strategic crisis. Failure and crisis of any sort in an economy are normally used by individuals with rather abnormal doctrines as an excuse to form a Kurt like rebel movements. With a lot of anger and desperation accompanied with fear of missing out, it normally seems logical for a lot of individuals to seek for rather odd supportive-ideological pillars would never otherwise attract such numbers under normal circumstance. Historical evidence has shown this happening on multiple occasions over and over again, such as with China’s Mao Zedong, Nazi Germany’s Hitler, Italy’s own Benito Mussolini and Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin just to name a few.

Well, one might still ask, how is all that connected to AL-SHABAAB’s emergence?

To answer the question and to understand this study’s core disquisition on Al-Shabaab’s recruitment, it will be helpful if we got a little perspective and background information on the uprising of the group, which of course goes hand in hand with the history of the Somali civil war.

Background information

Based in East African, Harakat Al-Shabaab Al-Mujahideen or simply Al-Shabaab is a radical Islamic group that is part of the Salafi movement – a movement within the Sunni Islamic faction that emerged during the 18th century in the Middle East campaigning against European colonialism and advocating a return to the traditional and holy ways.

The group’s history can be traced further back from 1991 during early stages of the Somali civil war when Somalia’s dictator Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown. Having led Somalia (Somali land included) in dictatorship manner for over twenty-two years since the 1969 coup, the political climate was never the same in the country. Different rebel clan groups led by warlords had started revolting since the early 1980s, and were successful in 1991 forcing Mohamed Siad Barre to flee following the capture of the capital Mogadishu.

With prospect anticipation on a more reconciled and automatic shift of power to follow upon, the country disappointed by going on a more doomed pathway. Having no centralised government in power the clan lords of two rebel groups – Ali Mahdi Mohamed and Mohamed Farah Aideed- started scrambling for power in what resulted in casualties among thousands of civilians. In the end Ali Mahdi Mohamed declared himself a president of the republic of Somalia (Southern part of Somalia); while Somaliland (the Northern part) self-declared its independence under the leadership of Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur as their first president and have since gone to form a peaceful and sovereign republic, although it is still internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.

History was right again since over time statistics have shown that any economy is bound to experience an emergence of a rebel movement/group in the midst of political, social and economic crisis – which was true for Somalia during Siad Barre’s regime and after his overthrow.

In the absence of a centralised government, persistent tension continued in Somalia especially the southern parts. The nation divided among various armed factions who consistently fought each other competing for large-scale political influence in the country. This saw Somalia with high mortality rates due to starvation, disease and very poor standards of living. The UN and the US government had unsuccessfully intervened on multiple occasions in the so-called ‘failed state’ with various peacekeeping attempts. Finally, with reduced tension and conflicts the transitional national government was established in the year 2000.  

The trend towards reduced conflicts continued until 2006 when the Al-Shabaab militant group emerged. The group was an offset of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which was a joint force of four major clan-based rebel groups who had proclaimed their own territories in Mogadishu and many central and southern parts of Somalia. ICU had enforced legitimation of their will following the strict sharia laws in the captured territories. In 2006, with the help of Ethiopian military troops, the UN-backed transitional government regained most of the South territories from ICU. This sparked the breakdown of ICU into more radical groups, Al-Shabaab being on of them.  

Ideological shifts over time

With over five thousand militant fighters, Al-Shabaab has publicly claimed responsible for casualties caused by their attacks both within and outside Somalia’s borders. Following these attacks the group has been listed as a terrorist group by United Nations, the African Union and a number of major economies in the world including the UK, the USA and Australia.

It is understood that Al-Shabaab’s primary goal is to overthrow the Somali government and establish their ideological legitimation that is based on the Sharia law. As mentioned earlier, the group is part of the global Salafi movement that is campaigning against the Western ideals and advocating the old good and holy ways.

Al-Shabaab’s core ideologies have been reformed on multiple occasions over time, what they stood for then isn’t their mission anymore. With the first group leader, Aden Hashi Ayro, Al-Shabaab modelled the Taliban’s principles because he had received his military training in Afghanistan. During his time the group wasn’t as violent to civilians but they got super vigilant if one broke one of the Taliban version of the sharia code. For instance, thieves would have their arms amputated, execution for those committing adultery and banned a wide range of activities and items that were considered unethical in the Muslim community.

After Aden Hashi Ayro’s death by the US missile attack, Ahmed Abdi Godane (2008-2014) succeeded him. During his time the group retained some of Ayro’s Taliban principles – in 2010 the group banned the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for its promotion of unethical and antimuslim propaganda – and reformed others in order to align with Al-Qaeda’s ideologies. This came after Al-Shabaab pledged loyalty to Al-Qaeda and its leader of the time, Ayman Al-Zawihiri. The group thereafter redefined their mission stating that their struggle is part of the global jihad. This helped Al-Shabaab to attract more foreigners to its ranks, and more funding from Al-Qaeda and other organisations abroad appealing to their renewed purpose. It was during this time that the group started targeting civilians within and outside its borders through suicide attacks, making the whole of East Africa – Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi the group’s top target. In the name of global jihad, the group had also extended threats to other countries overseas including the big three westerners (the UK, the USA and Canada).  

Following the assassination of Ahmed Abdi Godane by the US air force in 2014, the group declared allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in the following year. This tie denoted yet another reform to their ideologies following the ISIS’ manuscript. This move came with desperation as Al-Shabaab’s influence was constantly weakening in the region.

Recruitment

Al-Shabaab is now weaker than ever. Having lost influence in Mogadishu the militant group has been pushed further into the rural areas of Somalia. And with constant attacks from government forces especially from Kenya and the USA, the group has now dispersed into smaller groups for a higher survival rate of their jihad movement. KDF (The Kenyan Defense Forces) attacked the militant group’s graduation for their recruits’ training, instantly killing several of the group’s leaders including their intelligence chief Mohammed Katarey.  

This means Al-Shabaab is desperately recruiting new members to in order to regain their former influence and possibly surpassing it. The proximal targeted group has customarily been young men of age sixteen to twenty-five from within Somalia and other neighbouring countries, but there have been growing rumours that the group has started recruiting young women too.

During the leadership of Aden Hashi Ayro, the group had gained a lot of support in the country by promising to restore peace and security in the country. This made most individuals to envision them as heroes rather than villains. In fact, the group was a direct ramification of the clan rebel groups which played a huge role in overthrowing Somalia’s dictator Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991. So a lot of numbers joined the group because to them it made sense to be in the winning group that is fighting for the good of the whole public. Over time this vision was skewed when Al-Shabaab rejected Western food aid in the global efforts to combat the 2011 starvation crisis due to drought and famine. Moreover, the group started killing civilians within and outside the country for what it seemed like a strategic move in renouncing their competence as a global threat.  

According to research by the Institute for Security Studies, Anneli Botha and Mahdi Abdile found out that people join the extremists’ organisations for economic and religious reasons, and others through force of course. These reasons don’t come as surprise especially for individuals in Somalia – as for them there is a lot at stake, including social and political dynamics accompanied with poor governance in the country. For individuals from neighbouring countries, it is the religious and ethnic discrimination that makes the recruitment much easier.

However what’s shocking is the fact that even the ones who were taken by force would still choose to stay when set free. When asked why they would choose to stay, the militants attributed to the sense of responsibility and belongingness installed by the group’s daily religious teachings as the main reasons, followed with economic dependence and fear of being hunted down as mere reasoning.  

Al-Shabaab’s recruitment techniques have been changing over time. This is to make the system more sustainable and also partly because times have changed, we seeing more technological advances now more than ever. For instance, the group never used social media platforms back in 2006 but by around 2012 the method became the main form of recruitment. Social media use had been adopted from the major terrorist groups in the Middle East (Al-Qaeda and ISIS). Seeing their immense success, Al-Shabaab had to emulate the process – something that has seen them multiply enormously. In fact, what’s a better way for survival than the ability to adapt to change?

Online recruitment doesn’t not only target the common unemployed and spiritual fulfilment driven youth, but also individuals from wealthy and comfortable backgrounds who are frustrated, angry and alienated seeking to fight for what’s right (whatever that means) in an attempt to bring change. With online recruitment the process is divided into five small processes: discovery, the creation of micro-community, isolation, private communication and finally encourage action.

With the discovery, Al-Shabaab discovers potential recruits through what’s called targeted recruiting. Here the recruiting members search for vulnerable individuals mostly without a sense of life purpose or otherwise with a hatred trigger or doubt towards the western involvement in other countries especially in Africa and the Middle East. The recruiters then move to the next stage, where Al-Shabaab supporters flock onto the potential recruits with answers to their inquisitive questions and suggesting them into groups with supporters and other recruits.

After some months of teachings, brainwashing and conversion for the compelled Christians, the potential recruits are encouraged to isolate themselves from mainstream influence. After this, individuals are confined to classified information about the militant groups through skype or encrypted messaging platforms. Finally, potential prospects are encouraged to either join the group or carry attacks at their home countries.

Solutions & Conclusion

Now having roughly over 7000 active members, effective counter-radicalisation strategies proposals are to be developed imminently. Sympathisers and various activists have organised groups in social media networks engaging in conversations on how to tackle the problem once and for all. But of course, this fight is larger than life, and can not be won by people sitting behind their screens protesting. In fact, even the in-place counter-radicalisation strategies and solutions by different geopolitical organisations such as the EAC(East African Community), AU (African Union), UN and big economies like the US can not and will not be successful if an alternative approach is not taken into account.

In limiting and eventually demolishing Al-Shabaab’s influence in the region, we need to go down the roots and cut down their source of manpower supply. This can start as small as raising awareness among the targeted individuals and groups for recruitment. Ruling out the forced percentile of the militants in the group, this strategy can be enforced through providing alternative economic incentives to the targeted young men and women who tend to join the military groups partly because of economic reasons – many of the recruits were unemployed before joining Al-Shabaab.

Nevertheless, this has been done unsuccessfully against ISIS and AL-QAEDA in the Middle-East by international organisations allied with the local governments. Although bureaucracy, implementation and control had posed a major problem; this also suggests that maybe providing economic incentives is too ideological, and cannot produce positively in practice.

Meaning, we need to understand the incentives behind people joining the group or any other terrorist group, and then place a deterrent solution accordingly. Having learnt various recruitment techniques done by the groups, it is important that we place deterrent and restrictive laws that will either counteract the process or limit the numbers of the recruited.

Firstly, this can be done through working closely with the local Islamic communities and individuals from the affected countries in raising awareness on what is really happening in an attempt to bridge the gap between perception and reality.

Secondly, it is important that the intelligence agencies around the world work closely with different tech companies in coming up with algorithms that will easily decrypt and point alerting texts and conversations. The US CIA agency has been working with Twitter for years now in countering terrorism, but whenever the blocked a suspicious account a lot more accounts were created immediately afterwards. This is surely a wake-up call in developing more effective counter-radicalisation strategies as soon as possible if we are to win this cyber war.

Finally, in all the counter-radicalisation strategies, it is important to reckon that more than a single way is needed to solve the problem of extremism. There is no one ideal model that can counter all terrorist and revivalist problems in our society. We need tackle the problem from every single angle; let it be the use of force in the battlefield, limiting the recruitment process, ceasing their financial networks and support and limiting their ammunitions supply.

Bibliography:

Bir cemal safi şiiri – Benim adım aşk

SEMESTER 2, 23rd March 2017

As part of my final project for my Turkish class, I will be performing Cemar Safi’s nerve-wrecking & amazing piece in the name of ‘Benim adım aşk’ meaning my name is love.

The english translation can seem a bit mediocre, but don’t be fooled. A lot can be lost in translation. The turkish version is so moving and well crafted. The flow is unbelievably organic (mind you, this is coming from a person who you used to look down upon the whole genre).

Cemar Safi is simply a genius (not so good of a salesman myself, but will try). Born into poverty in the last quarter of 1938 in a small old town Samsun, Cemar is your typical Turkish old soul poet. They say ‘what comes from the soul touches the soul’, I guess I can now claim that this quote has never been so literal to me before.

Cemar has published over 150 poems to date, with his last mega project being the “Ya Evde Yoksan” poetry book.

CEMAL

Enough about the introductory note. Here it is …

My name is LOVE (ENGLISH)

Is there anyone who knows me?

I am the secret that cannot be solved without living in it,

Even if there aren’t many people who are unaware of me,

It is still hard to identify me.

 

Nightingales (bird) sung their songs in my language,

They fell in love with roses thanks to me,

And an avalanche from Taurus mountains fell into my heart,

But it cannot put out my fire.

 

There were sultans and kings,

Their destinies changed because of me,

I toppled them from their thrones,

I have unbelievable skills.

 

Wise people became uneducated because of me,

Wild people became nice ones thanks to me,

Selim * (ottoman king who is famous for being harsh) became tolerant because of me,

I am the one who spoils all the games.

 

I am the cause of fatal illnesses,

Even the most wise doctors couldn’t find a cure to me,

Kerem burnt for Aslı because of me (Kerem and Aslı are like Romeo and Juliet in turkish literature)

I am the fire into which they threw prophet Abraham.

 

For my sake, the big mountains were pierced,

It was for Leila or Shirin (heroines like Juliet)

Farhad* made me strong ( a character like Romeo )

I am the strength, I am the power.

 

Rumi( famous persian philosopher) made his religious movements thanks to my chants,

Yunus (famous turkish philosopher) made people calm with my help,

But at the same time, some families were destroyed because of me,

I am the goodness, I am the evil and I am from God.

 

Prophet Mohammed was created for me,

All the blessings were for me,

I am the sweet talk of wise people,

I am the brightness on the faces of all prophets.

 

I have no-one, no friends, no enemies,

I am invisible, no objects, no pictures,

I am easy to say, I just have one syllable,

I am located in a place they call ‘heart’

 

My name is LOVE.

 

Bir cemal safi şiiri – Benim adım aşk (TURKISH)

 

var mı beni içinizde tanıyan

yaşanmadan çözülmeyen sır benim

kalmasa da şöhretimi duymayan

kimliğimi tarif etmek zor benim

 

bülbül benim lisanımla ötüştü

bir gül için canevinden tutuştu

yüreğime toroslardan çığ düştü

yangınımı söndürmedi kar benim

 

niceler sultandı kraldı şahtı

benimle değişti talihi bahtı

yerle bir eyledim taç ile tahtı

akıl almaz hünerlerim var benim

 

kamil iken cahil ettim alimi

vahşi iken yahşi ettim zalimi

yavuz iken zebun ettim selim’i

her oyunu bozan gizli zor benim

 

yeryüzünde ben ürettim veremi

lokman hekim bulamadı çaremi

aslı için kül eyledim kerem’i

ibrahim’in atıldığı kor benim

 

sebep bazı leyla bazı şirin’di

hatrım için yüce dağlar delindi

bilek gücüm ferhat ile bilindi

kuvvet benim kudret benim fer benim

 

ilahimle mevlana’yı döndürdüm

yunusumla öfkeleri dindirdim

günahımla çok ocaklar söndürdüm

mevladanım hayır benim şer benim

 

benim için yaratıldı muhammed

benim için yağdırıldı o rahmet

evliyanın sözündeki muhabbet

enbiyanın yüzündeki nur benim

 

kimsesizim hısmım da yok hasmım da

görünmezim cismim de yok resmim de

dil üzmezim tek hece var ismimde

barınağım gönül denen yer benim

 

benim adım aşk!

>:CEM:<